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Parenthetical Citation

Parenthetical citations are sources cited within the text of the paper. They are notes to the reader to find the full citation on the Works Cited Page. Thus, the parenthetical citation comes from the beginning of the full citation from the Works Cited page. The format includes the author’s last name with the page number on which the content was found all placed inside parenthesis, example (Anderson 91). If there is no author, use the first three words of title followed by three dots (an ellipsis) all placed inside parenthesis with the page number, example (“Understanding Che Guevara…” 4). If the citation is the same as the previous citation you may use “Ibid.” Ibid means “in the same place.”

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Example of body paragraphs with parenthetical citations:

Che Guevara was not cold-hearted, and his experiences with the sick greatly affected him and his beliefs. His travels with Alberto Granado brought Che to many leprosaria mainly because Alberto was a medical researcher. Ernesto’s compassion is visible in an incident in a leprosarium in Argentina where Alberto was conducting research. A young girl was delivering an impassioned argument on the injustice of her internment. Alberto proved the severity of her condition by shoving a long needle into her back. The girl did not flinch, but Che did. He asked the girl to excuse them and then chastised Alberto for his unprofessional and cruel behavior for treating a patient so poorly (Anderson 61). While in Golfito, Costa Rica he visited the Company hospital of United Fruit Company. He observed that while the medicine they practiced was correct, the quality of the medical treatment depended on the person’s position in the company (Anderson 119). He laments, “as always the class spirit of the gringos can be seen (Anderson 119).” In Valparaiso, Chile, Che was emotional after visiting an elderly servant women who was dying of a lung and heart condition. He had given her what medicine he had, but it would not save her life (Guevara 29). His frustration is obvious when he wrote in his diary: “How long this order of things based on an absurd sense of caste will continue is not within my means to answer, but it is time the that those who govern dedicate less to propagandizing the compassion of their regimes and more money, much more money, sponsoring works of social utility” (Guevara 29). These anecdotes reveal his growing frustration with the governments that ignore basic needs such as health care and his increasing bond with the poor and oppressed. It was not merely the condition of the sick that disturbed him during his travels, but the deplorable treatment of workers as well.

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